Brief Persian History or Persian Literature

General Description

Persian records is one of the maximum historical histories of the sector. It produced a number of the classical and current poet, who labored day and night for its survival. Persian formally has spoken in Iran, Afghanistan (Dari) and Tajikistan. Therefore, greater than 110 million Persian talking folks inside the global.

The Origin Persian Language

The Persian language is one of the sweetest language inside the international. It became an Indo-European tongue with near similarity with the oldest language Sanskrit and Avestan ( the language used in holy books of Zoroastrian’s). The language advanced in Pars after the autumn of Achaemenian’s government. This language frequently used there from Pahlavi era to Sassanian era. The books and other literature of this period are very rare, but, Ferdowsi (a famend Persian poet) defined it in a better manner in his book (Shah Namaeh-e-Ferdowsi).

Influence of Arabic Language

Arab conquests have conquered Pars and environment. They began rehabilitation in the area for the welfare of the general public. Therefore, the Arabic language declared because the official language. They started their spiritual and academic training in the Arabic language. However, Pahlavi language changed into spoken in private life. The Arab conquests ruled over Pars for a century and a 1/2. In this way, a massive variety of Arabic phrases emerged in Pahlavi and a new language got here into being that’s called Persian.


After fall of Arab rulers, Arabic endured in Iran at small scale because the opposite main gaining knowledge of language Latin became used in Europe. In this manner, the Arabic steadily decreased. Despite the statistics that famous non-secular pupils and Muslim scientists Abu Ali Sina (Avicenna), Al-Baroni, Rhazes, Al-Ghazali and plenty of different have been also the usage of Arabic. Persian language evolved swiftly and become the automobile of literature. Moreover, it unfold toward the neighboring countries. Persian poets worked lots for its promotion and the ruling class of sub-continent takes eager interest in Persian poetry. Mughal emperor Akbar adopt Persian as an professional language.

Interest of Poets in Promotion of Persian Language

Persian pupils took the keen interest in promoting of Persian language and make it clean for readers. Moreover, Persian poets have also played a crucial role in its merchandising. Abu Abdullah Jaffar ibn-e-Muhammad Roudaki (born in 858 CE in Panjakent, Tajikistan and died in 941 CE) and Abu Mansoor Muhammad ibn-e -Ahmed Daqiqi Tusi (born in Tus, Iran) are the most prominent Persian poets. Roudaki is usually called the first Persian poet.

The Ghaznavid and early Seljuq Periods

Sultan Mahmood Ghaznavi changed into a brave Muslim king, who loves with scholars and eminent personalities. At about 4 hundred poets and eminent individuals had been connected with his workplace (DURBAR). The most terrific poet of his presidency changed into Ansari (born in 961 at Balkh) Ferdowsi (born in 940 in a village Paj, close to the metropolis of Tus, Khurasan and died in 1020). Ferdowsi wrote Shahnamah in 25 years which include complete Persian records. However, Farrukhi, Manouchehri and Asadi had been additionally well-known poets of Sultan Mahmood Ghaznavi. Sultan Mahmood Ghaznavi served his country within the field of training. He established a variety of libraries in each and each nook of his country. Al Biruni became the most popular prose author of Ghaznavid generation, who wrote “Chronology of Ancient Nations” in Arabic.

Saljuqi Era

Seljuq era is the second one classical length of Persian literature. It turned into the golden age of Persian prose and poetry in Persian records. Kamiya-e-Saadat (The Alchemy of Happiness) written with the aid of Imam Ghazali is one the maximum famous prose of this period.

Classical Persian Poets

Abu Moeen Hamid Uddin ibn Khosrow al-Qubadiani or Nasir-e-Khosrow (born in 1004 in village Qubadiyon, Bactria, Khorasan and died in 1088 at Yamgan, Afghanistan) was every other amazing author of classical Persian history, who wrote more than fifteen books. However, much less than half of those books have survived and to be had now. One of his well-known ebook is Safar Nama, which includes the history of adventure closer to Egypt. He become an Ismaili Shia sect scholar, vacationer and philosopher. His poetry and prose are well-known for purity of language and superb of technical skill. The poems of Nasir are lengthy odes. Nasir wrote poems on spiritual and ethical topics.

Famous scholar Mirza Muhammad Qazvini says that name of Nasir Khosrow may additionally bring within the list of top Persian poets i.E. Ferdowsi, Omar Khayyam, Anwari, Romi, Sheikh Saadi and Hafiz Shirazi. Some of the other most prominent Persian poets are Ansari, Abu Said, Khawaja’s, Nizami, Attar and Baba Tahir Syrian.

Poet of Force Theory

Omar Khayyam (Ghayas Uddin Abul Fateh Omer Ibrahim Khayyam Nishapuri) became born 18 May 1048 at Nishapur, Khorasan and died in four December 1131. He changed into a super pupil, mathematician, astronomer and poet. Khayyam has brazenly criticized spiritual matters and personalities in his poetry. He has usually referred and hailed himself as a awesome Sufi. The important topic of his poetry is hedonism tinged with a mild sadness, the power of destiny and ultimate lack of knowledge / unawareness of humans. Therefore, his poetry turned into largely not noted in Iran till the end of 19th century on this account. However, Iranian realized the importance of Khayyam’s poetry when Fitzgerald translated it within the west.


Attached Classical Poets

Sanai is every other super poet of classical Persian records who adopted the style of Nasir-e-Khosrow. Muaizi, Anwari and Khaqani are the alternative star poets of classical Persian records. They have written numerous books in Persian language. Most in their poetry contain on panegyric. The style of Anwari is comparatively tough from all other the poets of same generation. However, Khaqani is extra mannered, who reputable by means of all. He used technical language with extraordinary talent in his poetry. All these poets were popular in Iran but much less liked in the west due to their technical language.

Nizami (Jamal Uddin Abu Muhammad Ilyas ibn Yousaf ibn Zaki) is any other vivid star and Sunni poet in classical Persian history. He became born in 1140 at Ganja, Caucasus and died in 1209. He was a innovative poet and called specialist of Khamsah or Quintet (collection of 5 romantic poetry). Nizami wrote a mystical epic “Makhzan ul Asrar” or Treasure House of Secrets, romantic poetry “Khosro-o-Shireen” and Laila-o-Majnoon, tale of top notch Alexander “Sikandar Namah” and Haft Paikar which include the records of Bahram Gur. These books are very popular in Iran because of its romantic, colorful and unique writing fashion.

Abu Hamid bin Abu Bakar Ibrahim alias Farid Uddin Attar (born in 1145 in Nishapur and died in 1220 Khorasan). He turned into a outstanding Sufi, non secular and didactic poet in classical Persian records. Historians are of the opinion that he became born probably in 1136 (not conform). Manteq-ut-Tair is one in all his maximum famous e-book. Fitzgerald translated this e book as “The Bird Parliament”. Attar has explained the tale of birds symbolically for union of human beings with God in a exquisite a laugh. He gave an instance of Semorgh (hen) in his e book, who want to make their king.

Persian History in Thirteenth Century

Ashraf Uddin Mosleh Uddin Saadi called Sheikh Saadi and Maulana Jalal Uddin Romi have been the maximum popular Sunni Sufi poets of thirteen century in Persian records. Sheikh Saadi changed into born in Shiraz metropolis of Iran. His genuine date of start is not recognised, however, the modern-day history writers of Iran says that Saadi became born in 1184 AD and died in among 691 to 694 AH. The historian says that Sheikh Saadi has spent his lifestyles in 4 parts. Sheikh Saadi studied for 30 years, then he travelled the arena for 30 years, then he spent 30 years in writing of books and poetry and the ultimate lifestyles became spent in recluse and theosophy.

Jalal Uddin Rumi

Jalal Uddin Muhammad Rumi called Maulana Rumi turned into born on 30 September 1207 in Balkh (presently a northern province of Afghanistan) and died on 17 December 1273. He belongs to an Arab clan, who were popular for their spiritual services. “MASNAVI MAANAVI” become his well-known book which changed into completed in ten years. He recognized Persian, Arabic, Turkish and Greek languages.

Hameed Ullah Mostofi was also a famed creator of Persian history. He wrote records and geography. “Zafar Namah” or Book of Victory is his renowned e-book which incorporates of seventy-five,000 couplets. Nasir Uddin Tusi is also a well-known Persian poet who wrote on philosophy and logic. The different 3 popular poets of 13th century are Iraqi who wrote a paranormal and non-secular ebook “JAMAAT” or Flashes.

Abdul Hassan Yamin Uddin Khosrow alias Ameer Khosrow became born in 1253 at Patiyali Sultanate Dehli, presently Uterpardesh India and died October 1325 in Delhi India. Khosrow wrote in Persian, Arabic and Hindi languages. He become well-known for his candy language and additionally called as “The parrot of India”. At remaining a satirist poet Zakani is likewise the maximum favored poet of thirteenth century.

The Fifteenth Century onwards

Fifteenth century of Persian records is rich in provision of superb historians and poets. Nizam Uddin Shami the writer of Zafar Namah (a records of Taimur), Yazdi, Hafiz Abru, Khafi, Dawlat Shah and Mir Khand (writer of Rauzat-us-Safa or Garden of Purity) Dawani (creator of Akhlaq-e-Jalali), Kashafi (creator of Kalila wa Dimna also called Anwar-e-Subaili or the Lights of Canopus). The distinguished poets of fifteenth century are Sufi Maghribi, Qasim-e-Anwar, Katibi, Nemat Ullah Wali and Jami.

Noor Uddin Abdul Rahman Jami is appeared as ultimate eminent figure of classical Persian literature in Persian history. He turned into born in 1414 at Nishapur, Khorasan and died on 19 November 1492 in Herat, Afghanistan. Jami wrote greater than 45 treasured books. Some of his famous books are “Baharistan”, “Yousaf-wa-Zulaikha”, “Suleman-wa-Absal”, “Lawaih”, the valuable pearl, and “Laila-wa-Majnoon”. Persian poetry fallen into decline after the unexpected death of Jami. Jame was a splendid loss for Persian poetry.

Hatif changed into every other promising romantic and historic poet in Persian history. He was the promising nephew of Maulana Rumi, who deeply inspired by him. Other fans of Rumi had been Asifi, Fighani (known as “the little Hafiz”, Ahli and the Sufi poet Hilali. Khairati, Qasmimi, Kashi, Shani, Fasihi and Shafai are the famous Persian poets of sixteenth century.

Prominent Poets

Mirza Muhammad Ali Saeb Tabraizi, the next prominent and knowledgeable poet of 17th century who taken into consideration as pleasant Persian poet after Maulana Jami in Persian records. A brilliant minded and unique Persian poet in Persian records. He turned into born in Isfahan, Iran in 1602 and died in 1677. Saeb also remain attached with court docket (DARBAR) of Mughal emperor Shah Jehan in India but soon returned to Iran and joined the court docket of Shah Abbas II. He labored difficult on relate of modern-day poetry with vintage forms and created a new college.

Azhar is one in all his follower in eighteenth century, who turned into famous for extraordinary prose writing. He wrote Ash Kadah (the location of hearth-worship), which comprise biographies of greater than eight hundred poets. Azhar additionally wrote a Divan and a romantic epic. He wrote loads of history and autobiographies of poets and monarchs / rulers.

Saba become the laureate poet of 2d Qajar Irani emperor Fateh Ali Shah, who ruled Iran from June 1779 to October 1834. Saba become the eminent poet of 19th century in Persian records. He wrote a divan and Shahan Shah Namah. Mirza Habib Ullah Shirazi alias Qaani is some other intelligent, high-quality and well-known poet of Qajar generation in Persian history. He changed into born in 1223 AH in Shiraz and died in Tehran in 1270 AH, who wrote renowned book titled PARESHAN. Qaani additionally knows Arabic, English, French languages at the side of Persian language.

Modern Persian Poets or Revival of Persian Literature

Revival of Persian literature stated from early twentieth century. Prince Iraj Mirza has participated a lot in its revival. Iraj changed into a amazing and proficient Persian poet in Persian history. He become born in October 1874 in Tabraiz, the capital Azarbaijan (presently east Azarbaijan) and died in March 1926. Iraj Mirza worked for freedom of women. The different distinguished Persian poets of 20th are Adib, Bahar, Lahuti, Shahryar, Aref and the poetess Parvin E’tesami.

The Persian poets of maximum present day era Nima Yoshij, Raadi, Khanlari, Islami, Gulchin, Ahmed Shamlou, Mehdi Akhavan Sales, Masood Farzad, Sohrab Sepehri, Fereedon, Moshiri, Sadiq Hadayat, Samad Behrangi and Sadiq Choubak. The current outstanding girl poets of modern generation are Forough Farrukhzad.

A brief research has been made on the Persian records. Moreover, origin, Arab’s have an impact on and classical Persian poets have additionally been explained in short. It is also to be had on http://www.Persianpast.Com. The article is completely organic and written with the aid of Muhammad Ishaq.