Brief Persian History or Persian Literature 1

Brief Persian History or Persian Literature

General Description

Persian records are one of the maximum historical histories of the sector. It produced several classical and current poets who labored day and night for its survival. Persian formally has spoken in Iran, Afghanistan (Dari), and Tajikistan. Therefore, greater than 110 million Persian talking folks inside the globe.

The Origin Persian Language

The Persian language is one of the sweetest languages inside the international. It became an Indo-European tongue similar to Sanskrit and Avestan’s oldest language ( the language used in Zoroastrian’s holy books). The language advanced in Pars after the autumn of the Achaemenian government. This language was frequently used there from the Pahlavi era to the Sassanian era. The books and other literature of this period are scarce, but Ferdowsi (a famend Persian poet) defined it better in his book (Shah Namaeh-e-Ferdowsi).

Influence of Arabic Language

Arab conquests have conquered Pars and the environment. They began rehabilitation in the area for the welfare of the general public. Therefore, the Arabic language is declared because of the official language. They started their spiritual and academic training in the Arabic language. However, Pahlavi’s language changed into spoken in private life. The Arab conquests ruled over Pars for a century and a 1/2. In this way, a massive variety of Arabic phrases emerged in Pahlavi, and a new language got here into being that’s called Persian.


After the fall of Arab rulers, Arabic endured in Iran at a small scale because the opposite main gaining knowledge of language Latin became used in Europe. In this manner, the Arabic steadily decreased. Despite the statistics that famous non-secular pupils and Muslim scientists Abu Ali Sina (Avicenna), Al-Baroni, Rhazes, Al-Ghazali, and plenty of different have also been used Arabic. Persian language evolved swiftly and became the automobile of literature. Moreover, it unfolds toward the neighboring countries. Persian poets worked lots for its promotion, and the ruling class of the sub-continent takes an eager interest in Persian poetry. Mughal emperor Akbar adopt Persian as a professional language.

The interest of Poets in Promotion of Persian Language

Persian pupils took a keen interest in promoting of Persian language and make it clear for readers. Moreover, Persian poets have also played a crucial role in its merchandising. Abu Abdullah Jaffar ibn-e-Muhammad Roudaki (born in 858 CE in Panjakent, Tajikistan and died in 941 CE) and Abu Mansoor Muhammad ibn-e -Ahmed Daqiqi Tusi (born in Tus, Iran) are the most prominent Persian poets. Roudaki is usually called the first Persian poet.

The Ghaznavid and early Seljuq Periods

Sultan Mahmood Ghaznavi changed into a brave Muslim king who loves scholars and eminent personalities. At about 4 hundred poets and eminent individuals had been connected with his workplace (DURBAR). The most terrific poet of his presidency changed into Ansari (born in 961 at Balkh) Ferdowsi (born in 940 in a village, Paj, close to the metropolis of Tus, Khurasan, and died in 1020). Ferdowsi wrote Shahnamah in 25 years, which includes complete Persian records. However, Farrukhi, Manouchehri, and Asadi had been additionally well-known poets of Sultan Mahmood Ghaznavi. Sultan Mahmood Ghaznavi served his country within the field of training. He established a variety of libraries in each and each nook of his country. Al Biruni became the most popular prose author of the Ghaznavid generation, who wrote “Chronology of Ancient Nations” in Arabic.

Saljuqi Era

Seljuq era is the second classical length of Persian literature. It turned into the golden age of Persian prose and poetry in Persian records. Kamiya-e-Saadat (The Alchemy of Happiness), written with the aid of Imam Ghazali, is one the maximum famous prose of this period.

Classical Persian Poets

Abu Moeen Hamid Uddin ibn Khosrow al-Qubadiani or Nasir-e-Khosrow (born in 1004 in village Qubadiyon, Bactria, Khorasan and died in 1088 at Yamgan, Afghanistan) was every other amazing author of classical Persian history, who wrote more than fifteen books. However, much less than half of those books have survived and to be had now. One of his well-known ebooks is Safar Nama, which includes the history of adventure closer to Egypt. He becomes an Ismaili Shia sect scholar, vacationer, and philosopher. His poetry and prose are well-known for purity of language and superb technical skill. The poems of Nasir are lengthy odes. Nasir wrote poems on spiritual and ethical topics. Famous scholar Mirza Muhammad Qazvini says that Nasir Khosrow may also bring within the list of top Persian poets, i.E. Ferdowsi, Omar Khayyam, Anwari, Romi, Sheikh Saadi, and Hafiz Shirazi. Some of the other most prominent Persian poets are Ansari, Abu Said, Khawaja’s, Nizami, Attar, and Baba Tahir Syrian.

Poet of Force Theory

Omar Khayyam (Ghayas Uddin Abul Fateh Omer Ibrahim Khayyam Nishapuri) was born on 18 May 1048 at Nishapur, Khorasan, and died on four December 1131. He changed into a super pupil, mathematician, astronomer, and poet. Khayyam has brazenly criticized spiritual matters and personalities in his poetry. He has usually referred to and hailed himself as a awesome Sufi. The important topic of his poetry is hedonism tinged with a mild sadness, the power of destiny, and the ultimate lack of knowledge/unawareness of humans. Therefore, his poetry turned into largely not noted in Iran till the end of the 19th century on this account. However, Iranian realized the importance of Khayyam’s poetry when Fitzgerald translated it within the west.


Attached Classical Poets

Sanai is every other super poet of classical Persian records who adopted the style of Nasir-e-Khosrow. Muaizi, Anwari, and Khaqani are the alternative star poets of classical Persian records. They have written numerous books in the Persian language. Most of their poetry contains panegyric. The style of Anwari is comparatively tough from all other poets of the same generation. However, Khaqani is extra mannered, who reputable utilizing all. He used technical language with extraordinary talent in his poetry. All these poets were popular in Iran but much less liked in the west due to their technical language.

Nizami (Jamal Uddin Abu Muhammad Ilyas ibn Yousaf ibn Zaki) is any other vivid star and Sunni poet in classical Persian history. He was born in 1140 at Ganja, Caucasus, and died in 1209. He was a innovative poet called a specialist of Khamsah or Quintet (collection of 5 romantic poetry). Nizami wrote a mystical epic, “Makhzan ul Asrar” or Treasure House of Secrets, romantic poetry “Khosro-o-Shireen” and Laila-o-Majnoon, a tale of top-notch Alexander “Sikandar Namah” and Haft Paikar which include the records of Bahram Gur. These books are top-rated in Iran because of their romantic, colorful and unique writing fashion.

Abu Hamid bin Abu Bakar Ibrahim alias Farid Uddin Attar (born in 1145 in Nishapur and died in 1220 Khorasan). He turned into a outstanding Sufi, non secular, and didactic poet in classical Persian records. Historians think that he was born probably in 1136 (not conform). Mantel-ut-Tair is one of his maximum famous e-books. Fitzgerald translated this ebook as “The Bird Parliament.” Attar has explained the tale of birds symbolically for the union of human beings with God in a exquisite laugh. He gave Semorgh (a hen) an instance in his e-book, who want to make their king.

Persian History in Thirteenth Century

Ashraf Uddin Mosleh Uddin Saadi, called Sheikh Saadi, and Maulana Jalal Uddin Romi has been the maximum popular Sunni Sufi poets of the thirteen-century Persian records. Sheikh Saadi changed into born in the Shiraz metropolis of Iran. His genuine date of start is not recognized. However, the modern-day history writers of Iran say that Saadi was born in 1184 AD and died between 691 to 694 AH. The historian says that Sheikh Saadi has spent his lifestyle in 4 parts. Sheikh Saadi studied for 30 years, then traveled the arena for 30 years, then he spent 30 years writing books and poetry, and the ultimate lifestyles became spent in recluse and theosophy.

Jalal Uddin Rumi

Jalal Uddin Muhammad Rumi, called Maulana Rumi, was born on 30 September 1207 in Balkh (presently a northern province of Afghanistan) and died on 17 December 1273. He belongs to an Arab clan, who were popular for their spiritual services. “MASNAVI MAANAVI” become his well-known book which changed into completion in ten years. He recognized Persian, Arabic, Turkish and Greek languages.

Hameed Ullah Mostofi was also a famous creator of Persian history. He wrote records and geography. “Zafar Namah” or Book of Victory is his renowned e-book which incorporates seventy-five 000 couplets. Nasir Uddin Tusi is also a well-known Persian poet who wrote on philosophy and logic. The different 3 popular poets of the 13th century are Iraqis who wrote a paranormal and non-secular ebook “JAMAAT” or Flashes.

Abdul Hassan Yamin Uddin Khosrow alias Ameer Khosrow was born in 1253 at Patiyali Sultanate Dehli, presently Uterpardesh India, and died October 1325 in Delhi, India. Khosrow wrote in Persian, Arabic, and Hindi languages. He becomes well-known for his candy language and is additionally called “The parrot of India.” At remaining, a satirist poet Zakani is likewise the maximum favored poet of the thirteenth century.

The Fifteenth Century onwards

The fifteenth-century of Persian records is rich in the provision of superb historians and poets. Nizam Uddin Shami, the writer of Zafar Namah (records of Taimur), Yazdi, Hafiz Abru, Khafi, Dawlat Shah and Mir Khand (writer of Rauzat-us-Safa or Garden of Purity) Dawani (creator of Akhlaq-e-Jalali), Kashafi (creator of Kalila wa Dimna also called Anwar-e-Subaili or the Lights of Canopus). The distinguished poets of the fifteenth century are Sufi Maghribi, Qasim-e-Anwar, Katibi, Nemat Ullah Wali, and Jami.

Noor Uddin Abdul Rahman Jami appears as the ultimate eminent figure of classical Persian literature in Persian history. He was born in 1414 at Nishapur, Khorasan, and died on 19 November 1492 in Herat, Afghanistan. Jami wrote greater than 45 treasured books. Some of his famous books are “Baharistan,” “Yousaf-wa-Zulaikha,” “Suleman-wa-Absal,” “Lawaih,” the valuable pearl, and “Laila-wa-Majnoon.” Persian poetry has fallen into decline after the unexpected death of Jami. Jame was a splendid loss for Persian poetry.

Hatif changed into every other promising romantic and historic poet in Persian history. He was the promising nephew of Maulana Rumi, who he deeply inspired. Other fans of Rumi had been Asifi, Fighani (known as “the little Hafiz,” Ahli, and the Sufi poet Hilali. Khairati, Qasmimi, Kashi, Shani, Fasihi, and Shafai are the famous Persian poets of the sixteenth century.

Prominent Poets

Mirza Muhammad Ali Saeb Tabrizi, the next prominent and knowledgeable poet of the 17th century, was considered a pleasant Persian poet after Maulana Jami in Persian records. A brilliant-minded and unique Persian poet in Persian records. He turned into born in Isfahan, Iran, in 1602 and died in 1677. Saeb also remains attached with the court docket (DARBAR) of Mughal emperor Shah Jehan in India but soon returned to Iran and joined the Shah Abbas II court docket. He labored difficulty in relating modern-day poetry with vintage forms and created a new college.

Azhar is one of his followers in the eighteenth century, which became famous for extraordinary prose writing. He wrote Ash Kadah (the location of hearth-worship), which comprise biographies of greater than eight hundred poets. Azhar additionally wrote a Divan and a romantic epic. He wrote loads of history and autobiographies of poets and monarchs/rulers.

Saba becomes the laureate poet of 2d Qajar Irani emperor Fateh Ali Shah, who ruled Iran from June 1779 to October 1834. Saba becomes the eminent poet of the 19th century in Persian records. He wrote a divan and Shahan Shah Namah. Mirza Habib Ullah Shirazi alias Qaani is another intelligent, high-quality, and well-known poet of the Qajar generation in Persian history. He was born in 1223 AH in Shiraz and died in Tehran in 1270 AH, who wrote a parmesan book. Qadiani additionally knows Arabic, English, French languages at the side of the Persian language.

Modern Persian Poets or Revival of Persian Literature

The revival of Persian literature started in the early twentieth century. Prince Iraj Mirza has participated a lot in its revival. Iraj changed into a amazing and proficient Persian poet in Persian history. He was born in October 1874 in Tabraiz, the capital of Azarbaijan (presently east Azarbaijan), and died in March 1926. Iraj Mirza worked for the freedom of women. The different distinguished Persian poets of the 20th are Adib, Bahar, Lahuti, Shahryar, Aref, and the poetess Parvin E’tesami.

The Persian poets of the maximum present-day era Nima Yoshij, Raadi, Khanlari, Islami, Gulchin, Ahmed Shamlou, Mehdi Akhavan Sales, Masood Farzad, Sohrab Sepehri, Freedom, Moshiri, Sadiq Hadayat, Samad Behrangi, and Sadiq Choubak. The current outstanding girl poets of the modern generation are Forough Farrukhzad.

A brief research has been done on the Persian records. Moreover, origin, Arab’s impact, and classical Persian poets have also been explained in short. It is also to be had on http://www.Persianpast.Com. The article is completely organic and written with the aid of Muhammad Ishaq.

Ricardo L. Dominguez

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